Tuesday, May 26, 2020

A Brief History of the Tower of London

If you watch a British entertainer on their home soil make a joke about the Royal Family, youll probably see them follow it up with a quip like oh, they’ll take me to the Tower! They dont need to say which tower. Everyone growing up in the mainstreams of British culture hears about The Tower, a building as famous and central to the national myths of England as the White House is to the myths of the United States. Built on the north bank of the River Thames in London and once a home of royalty, a jail for prisoners, a site for executions and a storehouse for an army, the Tower of London now contains the Crown Jewels, guardians nicknamed Beefeaters (they arent keen on the name) and legend securing ravens. Dont be confused by the name: the Tower of London is actually a huge castle-complex formed by centuries of addition and alteration. Described simply, the nine hundred-year-old White Tower forms a core surrounded, in concentric squares, by two sets of powerful walls. Studded with towers and bastions, these walls enclose two inner areas called wards that are full of smaller buildings. This is the story of its origins, creation and the near continual development which has kept it at the center of an, albeit changing, national focus for nearly a millenia, a rich and bloody history that easily attracts over two million visitors every year. Origins of the Tower of London While the Tower of London as we know it was built in the eleventh century, the history of fortification on the site stretches back into Roman times, when stone and wooden structures were built and marshland reclaimed from the Thames. A massive wall was created for defence, and this anchored the later Tower. However, the Roman fortifications declined after the Romans left England. Many Roman structures had their stones robbed away for use in later buildings (finding these Roman remains in other structures is a good source of evidence and very rewarding), and what remained in London was likely foundations. Williams Stronghold When William I successfully conquered England in 1066 he ordered the construction of a castle in London, using the site of the old Roman fortifications as a base. In 1077 he added to this stronghold by ordering the construction of a huge tower, the Tower of London itself. William died before it was completed in 1100. William needed a large tower partly for protection: he was an invader attempting to take over a whole kingdom, one which needed pacification before it would accept him and his children. While London seems to have been made safe quite quickly, William had to engage in a campaign of destruction in the north, the Harrying, to secure that. However, the Tower was useful in a second way: the projection of royal power wasnt just about walls to hide in, it was about showing status, wealth and strength, and a large stone structure that dominated its surroundings did just that. The Tower of London as Royal Castle Over the next few centuries monarchs added ever more fortifications, including walls, halls and other towers, to an increasingly complex structure which became referred to as The Tower of London. The central tower became known as the ‘White Tower’ after it was whitewashed. On the one hand, every successive monarch needed to build here to demonstrate their own wealth and ambition. On the other hand, several monarchs had need to shelter behind these imposing walls due to conflicts with their rivals (sometimes their own siblings), so the castle remained nationally important and a military keystone in controlling England. From Royalty to Artillery During the Tudor period the use of the Tower began to change, with visits from the monarch declining, but with many important prisoners held there and an increase in the use of the complex as a storehouse for the nation’s artillery. The number of major modifications began to decline, although some were spurred on by fire and naval threats, until changes in warfare meant the Tower became less important as an artillery base. It wasnt that the Tower was any less formidable to the type of people it had been built to defend, but that gunpowder and artillery meant its walls were now vulnerable to new technology, and defences had to take markedly different forms. Most castles suffered a decline in military importance, and instead transformed into new uses. But monarchs were looking for different sorts of accommodation now, palaces, not cold, draughty castles, so visits fell. Prisoners, however, did not require luxury. The Tower of London as National Treasure As the military and government use of the Tower declined, parts were opened up to the general public, until the Tower evolved into the landmark it is today, welcoming over two million visitors annually. Ive been myself, and its a striking place to spend time and muse on the history its seen. It can get crowded though! More on the Tower of London The Tower of London Ravens: Ravens are kept at the Tower of London, in part to fulfill the demands of an old superstition†¦ this article explains why.The Beefeaters / Yeoman Warders: The Tower of London is guarded by people called Yeoman Warders, but they’re better known by a nickname: the Beefeaters. Visitors to the Tower should keep an eye out for, what by modern standards, are their unusual uniforms.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Leadership - 756 Words

TEAM LEADERSHIP MODEL 2 The firm at Hernandez and Associates are faced with a challenge to adapt to changes within their organization. The problems exist in implementing new responsibilities and expanding based on the individual client’s needs. Marco Hernandez, as a leader is faced with the responsibility to implement this change. The leader’s main job is to determine the team’s needs and take care of them (Hughes, Ginnett, Curphy, 2012). Team effectiveness is the underlying driver for a successful organization. By identifying certain process problems in teams, leaders can use the Team Leadership Model to diagnose appropriate leverage points for action. Suggestion of the TLM allows leaders to focus effort†¦show more content†¦would be desirable and plus to implement reasonable measures of team effectiveness that can be applied across teams and tasks in order to ensure the outputs of team meets its standards of quality, and timeliness of the people who will use it. Mr. Hernandez can enhance the group experience even further with his current team, by developing growth and personal well-being of the individuals. This can lead better results and consistent innovative progress. The leader can directly influence other inputs to create conditions for effective teamwork (Hughes, Ginnett, Curphy, 2012). The leaders job is to create the conditions for the team to be effective. By designing or redesigning input stage variables at the individual, organizational, and team design levels. The support of the team depends on gathering resources and providing recognition. By evaluating the environment through performance indicators and determining its impact on the organization. The key to success is sharing information with the team. By modeling a range of authority behaviors in the early stages effective leaders have laid the groundwork for continuing expectations (Hughes, Ginnett, Curphy, 2012) The goals for the team in relationship to outputs need to focus on meeting the expectation and satisfaction of their clients. Mr. Hernandez needs to establish methods to make the team even more effective than it already is. It is desirable for the leader to assess the teams’ workShow MoreRelatedThe Leadership Of Leadership And Leadership842 Words   |  4 Pagesideals of leadership, I met with two respected and admired school leaders: the Assistant Principal/Dean of Curriculum, and the Athletic Director. I chose these two school leaders because I wanted to gain an understanding of leadership from two diverse perspectives. I am thankful for the opportunity to hear from two different types of leaders, who ultimately share a lot of the same visions for my school and for leadership in general. While both subjects shared a similar definition of leadership, theirRead MoreLeadership And Leadership Of Leadership1711 Words   |  7 Pages7. Facilitative Leadership Facilitative leadership is dependent on quantities and outcomes – not a skill, though it takes much skill to master. The efficiency of a group is directly related to the effectiveness of its process. If the group is high operational, the facilitative leader uses a light hand on the procedure. 8. Laissez-faire Leadership Laissez-faire leadership gives expert to workers. According to AZ central, sections or subordinates are acceptable to work as they choose with nominal.Read MoreLeadership : Leadership And Leadership1605 Words   |  7 PagesLeadership Examined There have been many great leaders down through history. Leaders that have influenced change throughout many aspects of society. Great leaders have great influence. The effectiveness of a leader is determined by his leadership style. 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Every followersRead MoreTransformational Leadership : Leadership And Leadership887 Words   |  4 PagesThe idea of leadership has transformed throughout the years to encompass varying aspects of leadership approaches, leadership types and the like. According to Summerfield (2014), C. F. Rauch and O. Behling, quote leadership as: Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement. Given its broad definition, leadership is understood to have different meanings when applied to diverse situations. For example, there are different types of approaches toRead MoreOrganizational Leadership : Leadership And Leadership1568 Words   |  7 PagesConceptualizing Leadership Leadership is different in the eyes of each and every individual. What one person considers great leadership may be viewed by another as too demanding. Ultimately, time, place, situation, and people involved are considered some of the view variables for which type of leadership will be most effective. Through taking the Gallup Strengths Finder survey, I have been able to cement some of my top strengths and see how they come into play in my daily life. Learning about strengths

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Stereotypical Portrayal Of Gender Roles - 1841 Words

Stereotypical Gender Roles Gender roles are norms that are expected from men and women. These norms were mainly established after World War II, late 1940s to mid-1950s, when all the men returned from the war and resumed working the jobs they had left in order to join the army and the majority of the women became home care providers, while some started working jobs, such as teachers, secretaries etc†¦. Today, although this is a different era, people are still fixated on the norms that emerged through the previous eras turning them into stereotypes. A stereotype is a fixated idea about a particular person or a thing. An article by Holly Brewer called the â€Å"List of Gender Stereotypes† gives the readers an indication of some of the stereotypes that are still believed to exist and used to describe gender roles today. After such norms arose in the 1950s, multiple filmmakers adapted this idea and conveyed it into their films. One of the biggest portrayal of gender roles was depicted by Alfred Hitchcoc k in his 1954 film, Rear Window. Although the main plot of the movie revolves around the main character’s, L.B. â€Å"Jeff† Jefferies, attempt to solve a murder; the director successfully manages to illustrate the idea of gender roles stereotypes that had emerged during that era through his style of making this film, which is broken down into four categories. Hitchcock uses his editing, mise-en-scene, sound, and cinematographic style to show the stereotypical gender roles in this movie.Show MoreRelatedPortrayal Of Gender Stereotypes Of Children s Television Commercials1639 Words   |  7 Pages Portrayal of Gender Stereotypes in Children’s Television Commercials. Liuyi Bian University of Florida Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in gender portrayal in children’s television commercials. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Management Commentary Effectiveness

Questions: Task 1Critically evaluate the effectiveness of management commentary, such as Strategic Reports, in helping users to get a better and clearer understanding of an entitys past performance and future prospects. Task 2Critically analyse, from an investors viewpoint, Cineworlds revenue generated, profit or loss earned and earnings per share. Answers: Task 1 Strategic Reports Introduction The strategic report is prepared for Cineworld Group plc. The utility of strategic reports can be explained in relation to Cineworld Group plc. Cineworld Group plc is a group of cinema chain, which operates in Ireland, United Kingdom and Jersey. The cinema chain group is lead by Anthony Bloom, Chairman of the group and Moshe Greidinger, Chief Executive of the group and is headquartered in London in United Kingdom. Thus, taking this company into account the usage of strategic reports is explained from annual reports of the company for the year 2013. As per the strategic reports presented by the Directors of the company for the financial year 2013, the principal activities of the business are explained and reviewed. The main strategy of the company is to give the customers the prime importance, provide them with a great experience, and improve the overall efficiencies and effectiveness and to maintain the growth of the estate. The revenue of the Group, which includes the Picturehouse b rand, is 406.1 million in the financial year 2013, the net profit before tax of the Group, which includes the Picturehouse brand, is 30.9 million in the financial year 2013 and the EPS of the Group is 22.6 p in the financial year 2013 (Cineworld-plc.production.investis.com, 2015). Aims of Strategic Reports The Financial Reporting Council aims to promote the quality of corporate reporting and governance. FRC strongly believes that the entities should be encouraged to prepare a good quality strategic report. This strategic report will provide the stakeholders with a meaningful and holistic picture of the entitys business strategy, model, performance, development, future prospects and position. Stakeholders generally include the owners, shareholders, investors, creditors, suppliers and the public in general, who are essential for the entity to achieve its aims and objectives (Adair, 2011). Purpose of Strategic Reports The strategic report is prepared as per the guidance of the FRC. The purpose of the strategic report is to provide the shareholders with specific information about the company, which will help the shareholders, analyze the performance of the directors of the company related to exercising their duty of achieving successful outcome for the company. In the strategic report, the collective view of the directors is reflected. The financial statements are complemented by the information available in the strategic report. Strategic report complements the financial report by providing the information about the entitys business and its performance, development and overall financial position, which generally are not reported in the financial statements. This information available in the strategic reports help the shareholders evaluate the past results and based on it they assess the future prospects. The strategic reports also help in providing more information about the amounts recorded in th e financial statements and provide explanation about the events and conditions, which will shape the information given in the financial reports (Barrow, 2011). Materiality of Strategic Reports The annual report and more importantly the strategic report should contain the information, which is important for the shareholders. So, when the financial information whose misrepresentation or omission can adversely affect the financial decisions of the shareholders then that is known as the material information. In this context, the concept of materiality can be explained on basis of its magnitude. The materiality is assessed for the strategic report and the review should be made annually to ensure that the information given in the strategic report have the materiality in relation to the constant change in the economic and social environment (Berk and DeMarzo, 2011). Communication Principles of Strategic Reports The communication principles of the strategic report are important in the sense because it helps in guiding the qualitative characteristics. The qualitative characteristics given in the strategic reports of the company are- It should be balanced, fair and understandable.It should show the negative and positive aspects of the performance, position, development, future prospects and results of the company. The information given in the strategic reports should be unbiased and open. This will prevent the misleading of information to the shareholders. The report should be simple and understandable. This means that the report should consist of simple languages and all financial jargons should be minimized as possible (Bratton and Brudney, 2012). In order to improve its presentation the report may include the use of graphical, pictorial and tabular methods to represent the financial information better. The strategic report should be concise as well as comprehensive. Comprehensiveness generally focuses on including that information in the strategic reports, which will help the shareholders understand the financial performance and position of the company. It suggests that it is not necessary to include all the information and instead stock to the relevant information (Brealey, Myers and Marcus, 2012). Conciseness on the other hand focuses on including and providing all the information through efficient communication methods. The orientation in the strategic report should be more forward looking. The information provided in the strategic report should be in context to the entitys performance. The disclosures of the information should be made in connection to the regulatory requirements and the informations nature. In addition, the presentation and structure of the strategic reports should be assessed annually in order to maintain that the objectives of the company could be meeting in an effective and efficient manner. The annual report and its content should also be annually reviewed for maintaining continuous relevance (Cineworldplc.com, 2015). Objectives of Financial Reporting- The total revenue of the Group, which includes the Picturehouse brand, is 406.1 million in the financial year 2013, which is 13.2% higher than that of 358.7 million in 2012. The total revenue or sales revenue is calculated for the past 52 weeks. The total earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization or EBITDA of the Group, which includes the Picturehouse brand, is 72.3 million, which is 8.1% higher than that of 66.9 million in 2012. The total EBITDA is calculated for the past 52 weeks. The adjusted pro-forma profit before tax of the Group is 44.7 million in the financial year 2013, which is 10.4% higher than that of 40.5 million in 2012. Pro-forma profit before tax is calculated for the past 52 weeks (Hargreaves Lansdown, 2015). The net profit before tax of the Group, which includes the Picturehouse brand, is 30.9 million in the financial year 2013, which is 19.3% lower than that of 38.3 million in 2012. The net profit before tax is calculated for the past 52 weeks (Hillier, 2013). Some other objectives are- The market share of the box office of the Group in Ireland and UK is 27.4% in 2013, which is higher than of 26.4% in 2012. The market share of Cineworld Cinemas increased by 0.7 percentage points i.e. in 2012 it was 24.7% and in 2013, it was 25.4%. As per the proà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Ëœforma basis, the Group admissions increased by 1.4% as compared to 2012. The average ticket price per admission increased to 3.2% i.e. in 2013 it became 5.43 as compared to 5.26 in 2012. The average retail spends per person also increased in 2013 to 1.83 as compared to 1.73 in 2012. As per the right issue a dividend of full year of 10.1p per share, it shows a growth of 6.3% in the cash dividend. Those shareholders whose rights constitute as the rights issue part made on 14 February 2014 enjoy this benefit (Hirt, Block and Danielsen, 2011). In addition, it opened nine new cinema halls in Wembley, ten new cinema halls in Gloucester Quay and reopened the Glasgow IMAX Science Centre as the new Cineworld Cinema. Previously the Group opened two new Starbucks outlets and in the year 2013, it opened nine more Starbucks outlets, which brought the total to 11 such outlets. On 10 January 2014, the Cineworld Group made an agreement with the Cinema City International N.V. or CCI, related to some cinema assets, which was finally completed on 27 February 2014 (Holden, 2012). Competitor Analysis Some of the competitors of CineWorld are Vue, Showcase, Empire, Odeon and Others. As per the total revenues earned by all the cinema halls, a pie chart is prepared. The total revenue earned by Cineword in 2013 is 29%, Vue in 2013 is 17%, Showcase in 2013 is 12%, Empire in 2013 is 20%, and Odeon in 2013 is 22%. Future Prospects As per the strategic reports, the success of the entertainment industry and more precisely of the Cineworld Group is based on good cinema slate in the coming years. Although in 2014 no 50m-plus films is slated for release but it has a quite a few good movies from famous franchisees, which is likely to generate the revenue according to that of 2013. Also major cinema hall chains in Ireland and UK are now using digital projection facility to its viewers. Cinema chain groups specially the Cineworld Group Plc. are seeking to increase their annual return from investment by increasing their flexibility in digital advertising, film scheduling and digital projection, which provides a wider opportunity by event cinema. The future prospects of Cineworld Group Plc. can be achieved by using its effective business model (Jordan, Westerfield and Ross, 2011). Business Model As per the business model, the films offered in the cinema for the viewers should be of better quality. As per the business model, the customers are delivered with better services by offering comfortable, clean, proper running facilities in a well-placed location. As per the business model, the Group is also generating revenue from other sources like screen advertising and retail sales. As per the business model, the Group also aims to provide better movie viewing experience to its customers to ensure repeat visits. This could be done by delivering a variety of films, retail offering as per the customers tastes and a good quality venue. Along with this, the group also provide membership initiatives and schemes to help in repeat visits (Fridson and Alvarez, 2011). The above business model can help Cineworld achieve its organizational and business objectives. Summary The study mainly focuses on the strategic report of the Cineworld Group. In the strategic report of the company, the stakeholders are provided with a meaningful and holistic picture of the entitys business strategy, model, performance, development, future prospects and position. Stakeholders of the company include the owners, shareholders, investors, creditors, suppliers and the public in general, who are essential for the entity to achieve its aims and objectives. Some of the highlights of the strategic report of the Cineworld Group includes the The total revenue of the Group, which includes the Picturehouse brand, is 406.1 million in the financial year 2013, which is 13.2% higher than that of 358.7 million in 2012. The net profit before tax of the Group, which includes the Picturehouse brand, is 30.9 million in the financial year 2013, which is 19.3% lower than that of 38.3 million in 2012. The market share of the box office of the Group in Ireland and UK is 27.4% in 2013, which is higher than of 26.4% in 2012. The average ticket price per admission increased to 3.2% i.e. in 2013 it became 5.43 as compared to 5.26 in 2012. As per the right issue a dividend of full year of 10.1p per share, it shows a growth of 6.3% in the cash dividend. Along with the financial performance of the company, its financial prospects of the company are also discussed. Task 2 Introduction The income statement of Cineworld is prepared and its detailed analysis is done. For analyzing the income statement of the company, Cineworld Group PLC., the accounting ratios is analyzed. From the ratio analysis, it can be understood that the operating income margin is increasing in 2013 as compared to 2012 and all other ratios are showing a decrease in the profitability and coverage position of the company group from 2012 to 2013 due to the increase in its operational expenses (Ross, Westerfield and Jordan, 2013). Therefore, the Group believes that although 50 million films will not be released in 2014, but some good movies from big franchisees will be released in 2014. This will help the company make huge revenue from its ticket sales, retail sales and screen advertising. The adjusted pro-forma diluted earnings per share or EPS of the Group is 22.6 p in the financial year 2013, which is 7.1% higher than that of 21.1 p in 2012. Pro-forma diluted earnings per share or EPS is calculated for the past 52 weeks. The diluted earnings per share or EPS of the Group are 13.8 p in the financial year 2013, which is 27.4% lower than that of 19 p in 2012. Diluted earnings per share or EPS are calculated for the past 52 weeks (Taillard, 2013). Income Statement The income statement of a company is known as the Statement of Profit or Loss and other Comprehensive Income. An income statement is the type of financial statement, which is used to show the total sales revenue earned by the company and the total expenses incurred in the carrying out the production process. The difference between the total revenue and the total cost is known as the net income earned during the financial year (Libby, Libby and Short, 2011). Cineworld Group PLC (CINE.L) Income Statement Annual Data All numbers in Millions Period Ending 26-Dec-13 27-Dec-12 Total Revenue 406.1 358.7 Cost of sales -293.3 -263.9 Gross Profit 112.8 94.8 Other operating income 0.5 0.3 Administrative expenses -75.8 -51.1 Operating profit 37.5 44 Analyzed between: Operating profit before depreciation, impairments, reversals of impairments and amortization, onerous lease and other non-recurring or non-cash property charges, transaction and reorganization costs, defined benefit pension scheme indexation gain, and refinancing costs 72.3 66.9 Depreciation and amortization -24 -21.5 Onerous leases and other non-recurring charges -0.7 -1.6 Impairments and reversals of impairments -2 -0.3 Other non-recurring income 2 Transaction and reorganization costs -8.1 -1.1 Defined benefit pension scheme past service costs -0.4 Finance income 0.3 0.3 Finance expenses -6.8 -6.9 Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges reclassified from equity 1 Net finance costs -6.5 -5.6 Share of loss of jointly controlled entities using equity accounting method, net of tax -0.1 -0.1 Profit on ordinary activities before tax 30.9 38.3 Tax charge on profit on ordinary activities -9.9 -10.8 Profit for the period attributable to equity holders of the Company 21 27.5 Basic earnings per share 14.0p 19.2p Diluted earnings per share 13.8p 19.2p For measuring the income statement of the company mainly, the profitability ratios are used. Some of the profitability ratios and other accounting ratios used here are- Gross Profit Ratio- This the ratio between the total gross incomes divided by the total sales revenue. It indicates the total sales percentage available for the cost of production and sales and the profit generated from the deduction of the cost from the sales. GP Ratio= Gross Income or Profit/ Total Revenue from Sales *100 Period Ending 26-Dec-13 27-Dec-12 Gross Profit 112.80 94.80 Total Revenue 406.10 358.70 Gross Profit Ratio 28% 26% The gross profit ratio of the company shows that with the increase in sales and gross income the gross profit margin has increased from 26% in 2012 to 28% in 2013 (Kensinger, 2011). Operating Profit Ratio- This the ratio between the total operating incomes divided by the total sales revenue. It indicates the total sales percentage available for the cost of production and operating expenses and the operating profit generated from the deduction of the administrative expenses and addition of the other incomes to the gross profit. OP Ratio= Gross Income or Profit/ Total Revenue from Sales *100 Period Ending 26-Dec-13 27-Dec-12 Operating Profit 37.50 44.00 Total Revenue 406.10 358.70 Operating Profit Ratio 9.23% 12.27% Unlike, gross profit margin, the operating profit margin is decreasing from 12.27% in 2012 to 9.23% in 2013. The main reason behind this fall in the operating profit margin is the comparatively higher increase in the administrative expenses (Lumby, 2011). Net Profit Ratio- This the ratio between the total net incomes divided by the total sales revenue. It indicates the profit per sales pound after all the required expenses are subtracted from the sales revenue. The net profit margin is used to measure the actual profit condition of the company. NP Ratio= Net Income or Profit/ Total Revenue from Sales *100 Period Ending 26-Dec-13 27-Dec-12 Net Profit 21.00 27.50 Total Revenue 406.10 358.70 Net Profit Ratio 5.17% 7.67% Like, the operating profit margin the net profit margin is also decreasing from 7.67% in 2012 to 5.17% in 2013. The main reduction in the net profit margin is because there is an increase in the overall value of all the expenses required to bear the sales operation (McGuigan and Moyer, 2012). Earnings per share- The net earnings per share are used to show the net profit after taxes on each of the outstanding shares of the companys common stocks. If the company instead of common stock has preferred stock then the preferred dividends should be subtracted from the net profit. As in this case, the earnings per share of the company group are available from the income statement given in the annual reports. Thus, the basic and diluted earnings per share are- EPS= Net Profit/ Total number of shares which are outstanding Period Ending 26-Dec-13 27-Dec-12 Basic earnings per share 14.0p 19.2p Diluted earnings per share 13.8p 19.2p AS from the above table, the EPS of the group is decreasing from 2012 to 2013. In 2012, the basic EPS was 19.2 p, which decreased to 14 p in 2013, and the diluted EPS was 19.2 p, which decreased to 13.8 p in 2013. The main reason behind the decrease in the EPS is the fall in the net profit of the Group for the year 2013 due to a high increase in the expenses (Moles, 2011). Interest Coverage Ratio- This kind of ratio is used to indicate the ability of the company to cover the interest that will be needed to be paid on the debt taken by the Group. The interest coverage ratio is useful to measure the efficiency of the company to pay its interest expenses from its profit. Interest Coverage Ratio=EBIT/ Interest Expenses Period Ending 26-Dec-13 27-Dec-12 EBIT 37.50 44.00 Interest Expenses 6.80 6.90 Interest Coverage Ratio 5.514705882 6.376811594 The interest coverage ratio of the Group has decreased from 6.38 times in 2012 to 5.51 times in 2013. The decrease in the interest coverage ratio is in connection with the decrease in the net profit of the company. A decreasing interest coverage ratio means that company is finding it difficult to cover its interest expenses from its net income for the year (Parrino, Kidwell and Bates, 2012). Return on Equity- The ROE is used to measure the profit percentage that the company group will earn on the shareholders equity. If preferred stock is the source of equity then the dividend is subtracted from the net profit. ROE=NPAT or net profit after tax/ Shareholders Equity Period Ending 26-Dec-13 27-Dec-12 Net Profit 21.00 27.50 Shareholders Equity 193.90 188.60 ROE 11% 15% The ROE of the company in 2013 was 11% and in 2012, it was 15%. The ROE of the group has decreased from 2012 to 2013, which resulted in less earnings of the company from its stockholders equity (Ramsden, 2011). Return on Assets- The ROA is used to measure the profit percentage that the company group will earn on the total assets. The total assets include the current assets and the fixed assets. ROA=NPAT or net profit after tax/ Total Assets Period Ending 31-Dec-13 31-Dec-12 Net Profit 21.00 27.50 Total Assets 486.90 477.80 ROA 4% 6% The ROA of the company in 2013 was 4% and in 2012, it was 6%. The ROE of the group has decreased from 2012 to 2013, which resulted in less earnings of the company from its total assets (Robin, 2011). Conclusion The profitability position of the company is explained using the profitability ratios, which shows that the company is successful in maintaining a stable profit growth. Some of the ratios used here are Gross Profit Ratio, operating profit ratio, net profit ratio, earnings per share, ROE and ROA. From the annual reports of Cineworld Group PLC, the income statements are considered for analyzing the Groups profitable structure and its overall financial performance. The income statements of the Group are analyzed by using the accounting ratios (Jain, Singh and Yadav, 2013). References Adair, T. (2011).Corporate finance demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill. Barrow, C. (2011).Practical financial management. London: Kogan Page. Berk, J. and DeMarzo, P. (2011).Corporate finance. Boston, MA: Prentice Hall. Bratton, W. and Brudney, V. (2012).Corporate finance. New York: Foundation Press. Brealey, R., Myers, S. and Marcus, A. (2012).Fundamentals of corporate finance. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Cineworldplc.com, (2015).cineworldplc.com. [online] Available at: https://www.cineworldplc.com [Accessed 26 Jun. 2015]. Cineworld-plc.production.investis.com, (2015).Home. [online] Available at: https://cineworld-plc.production.investis.com [Accessed 26 Jun. 2015]. Fridson, M. and Alvarez, F. (2011).Financial statement analysis. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. Hargreaves Lansdown, (2015).Benefit from an award-winning investment service. [online] Available at: https://www.hl.co.uk [Accessed 26 Jun. 2015]. Hillier, D. (2013).Corporate finance. London [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill. Hirt, G., Block, S. and Danielsen, B. (2011).Corporate finance foundations. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Holden, C. (2012).Excel modeling in corporate finance. Boston: Pearson. Jain, P., Singh, S. and Yadav, S. (2013).Financial management practices. New Delhi: Springer. Jordan, B., Westerfield, R. and Ross, S. (2011).Corporate finance essentials. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Kensinger, J. (2011).Research in finance. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald. Libby, R., Libby, P. and Short, D. (2011).Financial accounting. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Lumby, S. (2011).Corporate finance. London: Cengage Learning. McGuigan, J. and Moyer, R. (2012).Contemporary corporate finance. [Mason, Ohio?]: South-Western, Cengage Learning. Moles, P. (2011).Corporate finance. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. Parrino, R., Kidwell, D. and Bates, T. (2012).Fundamentals of corporate finance. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Ramsden, P. (2011).Financial Management. London: Hodder Education. Robin, J. (2011).International corporate finance. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Ross, S., Westerfield, R. and Jordan, B. (2013).Fundamentals of corporate finance. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Taillard, M. (2013).Corporate finance for dummies. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley Sons, Inc.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Antiwarriors essays

Antiwarriors essays Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War And The Battle For America's Hearts And Minds. By Melvin Small. (Wilmington, DE, Scholarly Resources Inc, 2002. pp. 163). The antiwar movement during the Vietnam Conflict was the most effective and long lasting of all the antiwar movements in American history. Up to that point, no other war has generated as much anarchy as much as Johnson's and Nixon's decisions to battle in Vietnam did. "Although never able to create enough pressure on decision makers to end U.S. involvement in the war, it served as a major constraint on their abilities to escalate...In many ways, the movement's greatest importance was its legacy." (1) There are still many unanswered questions revolving around this movement and its lasting effects though. How did it get to be as effective as it did? What were its lasting effects that can still be felt today? Who did the movement actually benefit at the time? All of these questions have two sides to them and may not be able to be answered from both sides at this point in history, but Melvin Small's "Antiwarriors" attempts to answer these questions. "Antiwarriors" is divided into nine chapters. Chapter one describes the origins of the people involved in the movement as well as the general reasons for different groups getting involved. The second chapter outlines the Americanization of the war and where, when, and to what extent the movement began and the exact reason why. The next two chapters chronicle the rise of the movement in relation to the escalating battles and deaths involving Americans overseas in what seems to be a war America need not be involved in. Chapters five and six both illustrate the ways the movement tried to pressure the presidents directly, with the main difference in those chapters being chapter five was involving President Johnson while chapter six involved President Nixon. Chapters seven and eight experienced and decline in battles with the Communis...

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Guns, Money and Politics Notes #1 Essays - Democracy, United States

Guns, Money and Politics Notes #1 Essays - Democracy, United States Federalist No. 10 written by James Madison was a series arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. Published on November 22, 1787 .it is titled, "The Same Subject Continued: The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection". No. 10 addresses the question of how to guard against "factions", or groups of citizens, with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community The question of faction Federalist No. 10 continues the discussion of the question broached in Hamilton's Federalist No. 9. Hamilton there addressed the destructive role of a faction in breaking apart the republic. The question Madison answers, then, is how to eliminate the negative effects of faction. He defines a faction as "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a minority or majority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community". He identifies the most serious source of faction to be the diversity of opinion in political life which leads to dispute over fundamental issues such as what regime or religion should be preferred. However, he thinks that "the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society". He saw direct democracy as a danger to individual rights and advocated a representative democracy in order to protect what he viewed as individual liberty from majority rule, or from the effects of such inequality within society. Madison's arguments Madison first assessed that there are two ways to limit the damage caused by faction: either remove the causes of faction or control its effects. He then describes the two methods to removing faction: first, destroying liberty, which would work because "liberty is to faction what air is to fire", but it is impossible to perform because liberty is essential to political life. The second option, creating a society homogeneous in opinions and interests, is impracticable. The diversity of the people's ability is what makes them succeed more or less, and inequality of property is a right that the government should protect. Madison particularly emphasizes that economic stratification prevents everyone from sharing the same opinion. Madison concludes that the damage caused by faction can be limited only by controlling its effects. He then argues that the only problem comes from majority factions because the principle of popular sovereignty should prevent minority factions from gaining power. Madison offers two ways to check majority factions: prevent the "existence of the same passion or interest in a majority at the same time" or render a majority faction unable to act. Madison concludes that a small democracy cannot avoid the dangers of majority faction because small size means that undesirable passions can very easily spread to a majority of the people, which can then enact its will through the democratic government without difficulty. With pure democracy, he means a system in which every citizen votes directly for laws, and, with republic, he intends a society in which citizens vote for an elite of representatives who then vote for laws. He indicates that the voice of the people pronounced by a body of representatives is more conformable to the interest of the community, since, again, common peoples decisions are affected by their self-interest. He then makes an argument in favor of a large republic against a small republic for the choice of "fit characters" to represent the public's voice. In a large republic, where the number of voters and candidates is greater, the probability to elect competent representatives is broader. The voters have a wider option. In a small republic, it would also be easier for the candidates to fool the voters but more difficult in a large one. The last argument Madison makes in favor of a large republic is that as, in a small republic, there will be a lower variety of interests and parties, a majority will more frequently be found. The number of participants of that majority will be lower, and, since they live in a more limited territory, it would

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Critically appraise the changing role(s) of management accountants Essay

Critically appraise the changing role(s) of management accountants - Essay Example It is obvious that as over the years business and corporate world has evolved and gone through many changes thus management accountants being part of this system would also face transformation in their roles. It is the versatility that is being demanded today therefore a professional cannot limit or restrict itself to its particular job. It is a fact that today management accountants face many challenges especially competition from other managers as they are performing multiple jobs. Therefore the aim of this report is to highlight how the corporate world has evolved over the years; how it demands changes in the role of management accountant and what are the factors that have contributed to these changed roles. As the business world changes so have the roles of professionals that are involved in it however some are the factors that have necessitated the changes in the roles of management accountant they are discussed as follows: A very rapid technological development is witnessed, use of computers and accounting and analytical software allows the management to keep record, provide information, issue reports and even perform analysis. These advanced software and ease in access to the internet management accountant to perform more sophisticated analysis and decision support activities. These software are often automated they just require data entry and have made accounting departments more of an information providers rather participators in the decision making. Therefore this advancement in technology requires the management accountant to modify their roles and gain some extra skills. Business world has seen exceptional rise in competition different strategies and steps are taken to respond and sustain in the market. The major focus of the organizations has been on increasing the production and quality of the products and services that they provide. This shift in priorities